An in vitro cellular assay for bovine tuberculosis has recently been developed. This assay detects gamma-interferon released in response to specific antigen in a whole blood culture system. The bio-assay previously described for the detection of bovine gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) has now been replaced with a sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which utilises two monoclonal antibodies to bovine IFN-gamma. The EIA detects less than 25pg/ml of recombinant bovine IFN-gamma and is specific for biologically active bovine IFN-gamma; and does not detect bovine alpha or beta interferon. IFN-gamma from sheep, goat and buffalo, but not from pig, deer or man, are also recognised by the EIA. The bovine IFN-gamma EIA when used in conjunction with the whole blood culture system has resulted in a simple, rapid and sensitive in vitro assay for specific cell mediated immune responsiveness to M. bovis infection in cattle.