This article aims to study the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and prevalence of self-reported diabetes in a rural population in Kerala, India. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Data from PROLIFE, a prospective cohort study involving the long-term follow-up of the residents of an administrative unit in Kerala, India, was used. The 33 379 households in the study area were divided into 4 groups (SEP1 to SEP4) on the basis of household assets. Prevalence of diabetes was ascertained through a lifestyle questionnaire. The proportion of self-reported diabetes was highest (at 11.1%) in SEP4, the group with the highest socioeconomic status, when compared with 3.1% in SEP1. The trend was similar in both sexes. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes increases as one moves up the socioeconomic ladder in this rural community.