Rett syndrome (RTT) is characterized by a relatively specific clinical phenotype. We screened 152 individuals with RTT phenotype. A total of 22 different known MECP2 mutations were identified in 42 subjects (27.6%). Of the 22 mutations, we identified 7 (31.8%) frameshift-causing deletions, 4 (18.2%) nonsense, 10 (45.5%) missense mutations and one insertion (4.5%). The most frequent pathologic changes were: p.Thr158Met (14.2%) and p.Arg133Cys (11.9%) missense, and p.Arg255Stop (9.5%) and p.Arg294Stop (9.5%) nonsense mutations. We also detected the c.925C >T (p.Arg309Trp) mutation in an affected patient, whose role in RTT pathogenesis is still unknown. Patients without detectable MECP2 defects were screened for mutations of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene, responsible for the early-onset variant of RTT. We discovered two novel mutations: c.607G >T resulting in a termination codon at aa203, disrupting the catalytic domain, and c.1708G >T leading to a stop at aa570 of the C terminus. Both patients with CDKL5 mutation presented therapy-resistant epilepsy and a phenotype fitting with the diagnosis of early-onset variant of RTT. No FOXG1 mutation was detected in any of the remaining patients. A total of 110 (72.5%) patients remained without molecular genetic diagnosis that necessitates further search for novel gene mutations in this phenotype. Our results also suggest the need of screening for CDKL5 mutations in patients with Rett phenotype tested negative for MECP2 mutations.