Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths among children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is currently licensed in more than 90 countries and has contributed to significant declines in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Recent studies report an increased incidence of IPD caused by non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes (NVTs). Seroepidemiology of IPD caused by NVTs following the introduction of PCV7 is of interest, and this article provides a comprehensive global summary of the prevailing and emerging serotypes causing IPD in children. Currently, globally emerging or persistent NVTs include serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A. Serotypes included in the recently licensed 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) account for pneumococcal disease burdens in most developed countries of 65-85% and 80-90%, respectively. The seroprevalence of NVTs after widespread use of PCV10 and PCV13 requires ongoing monitoring.