The plasma level of tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA-Ag) was examined in 86 patients with polycythemia (29 polycythemia vera, 11 secondary polycythemia and 46 with spurious polycythemia) and 24 healthy volunteers. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen was significantly decreased in patients with polycythemia vera in comparison with healthy controls. On the other hand, in patients with spurious polycythemia and secondary polycythemia t-PA-Ag concentration was significantly increased. There was no significant difference in t-PA-Ag levels in polycythemic patients with or without thromboembolic disease. A significant correlation was detected between t-PA-Ag level and hemoglobin or hematocrit concentration in patients with polycythemia vera (p = 0.02, r = 0.43). However, in patients with secondary polycythemia and spurious polycythemia, no significant correlation between t-PA-Ag and hemoglobin level was found. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) levels in patients with polycythemia vera and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly.