Emergence of OXA-carbapenemase- and 16S rRNA methylase-producing international clones of Acinetobacter baumannii in Norway

J Med Microbiol. 2011 Apr;60(Pt 4):515-521. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.028340-0. Epub 2010 Dec 16.


This study was designed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic-resistance characteristics of 11 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained in Norway between 2004 and 2009. Interestingly, all the isolates were linked with recent hospitalization outside Norway. The epidemiological status was investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR assays for major international clones, typing of blaOXA-51-like variants and PFGE. The genotypic-resistance characteristics, including the occurrence of OXA-carbapenemase-encoding and 16S rRNA methylase-encoding genes and class 1 integrons, were investigated by PCR assays and sequencing. Seven isolates were found to harbour blaOXA-66 and belong to MLST clonal complexes (CCs) CC2P (Pasteur Institute scheme) and CC92B (Bartual scheme), and international clone II. One isolate harboured blaOXA-69, and belonged to CC1P, CC109B and international clone I. Two isolates belonged to sequence group 9, probably a subgroup of international clone I, and one isolate belonged to sequence group 4, a proposed novel international clone. All isolates contained an acquired OXA-carbapenemase-encoding gene: blaOXA-23-like (n=9), blaOXA-24-like (n=1) and blaOXA-58-like (n=1). Four isolates with high-level aminoglycoside-resistance contained the 16S rRNA methylase-encoding armA gene. Class 1 integrons with six different variable regions were detected. Sequence analysis of gene cassettes identified four aminoglycoside (aacA4, aac(6')-Im, aadA1 and aacC1), two chloramphenicol (catB8 and cm1A5), one β-lactamase (blaOXA-20) and one rifampicin (arr-2) resistance gene in various combinations. In conclusion, the occurrence of A. baumannii isolates producing OXA carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methylase in Norway was related to the worldwide distribution of international clones I and II, and the emergence of novel international clones.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter Infections / epidemiology*
  • Acinetobacter Infections / microbiology*
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / classification*
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / enzymology*
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / genetics
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / isolation & purification
  • Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Integrons
  • Methyltransferases / biosynthesis*
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • beta-Lactamases / biosynthesis*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Methyltransferases
  • rRNA (adenosine-O-2'-)methyltransferase
  • beta-Lactamases
  • carbapenemase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/HQ323750
  • GENBANK/HQ323751