Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a rare disease representing not more than 3-5% of all congenital heart diseases. TGA is a cardiac anomaly in which the aorta arises entirely or largely from the morphological right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the morphological left ventricle. This is called a ventriculo-arterial discordant connection and when accompanied by an atrio-ventricular concordant connection it is called a complete or D-transposition (D-TGA). The terms congenitally corrected TGA (ccTGA) or L-TGA describe an atrio-ventricular discordant connection. In D-TGA survival can only be achieved if additional shunting is simultaneously present, which possibly has to be created post-natal by the so-called Rashkind maneuver.Nowadays, an early anatomic correction using the arterial switch operation is the treatment of choice. Up to the 1980s, an atrial switch operation according to Senning/Mustard was performed. Apart from echocardiography the imaging modality of choice is usually MRI to assess the complex postoperative anatomy, viability of the myocardium and to perform a volumetric and functional assessment, including MR flow measurements. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is used if there are contraindications to MRI or if an assessment of cardiac and especially coronary anatomy is the main interest.