Lipopolysaccharide induces proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in experimental otitis media through the prostaglandin D2 receptor (DP)-dependent pathway

Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Feb;163(2):260-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04292.x. Epub 2010 Dec 16.


Otitis media is one of the most common and intractable ear diseases, and is the major cause of hearing loss, especially in children. Multiple factors affect the onset or development of otitis media. Prostaglandin D₂ is the major prostanoid involved in infection and allergy. However, the role of prostaglandin D₂ and prostaglandin D2 receptors on the pathogenesis of otitis media remains to be determined. Recent studies show that D prostanoid receptor (DP) and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2) cells (CRTH2) are major prostaglandin D₂ receptors. In this study, homozygous DP single gene-deficient (DP⁻(/)⁻) mice, CRTH2 single gene-deficient (CRTH2⁻(/)⁻) mice and DP/CRTH2 double gene-deficient (DP⁻(/)⁻ CRTH2⁻(/)⁻) mice were used to investigate the role of prostaglandin D₂ and its receptors in otitis media. We demonstrate that prostaglandin D₂ is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of Gram-negative bacteria, and that transtympanic injection of prostaglandin D₂ up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the middle ear. We also show that middle ear inflammatory reactions, including infiltration of inflammatory cells and expression of MIP-2, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by LPS, are reduced significantly in DP⁻(/)⁻ mice and DP⁻(/)⁻ CRTH2⁻(/)⁻ mice. CRTH2⁻(/)⁻ mice display inflammatory reactions similar to wild-type mice. These findings indicate that prostaglandin D₂ may play significant roles in LPS-induced experimental otitis media via DP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemokine CXCL2 / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Interleukin-1beta / immunology
  • Interleukin-6 / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Otitis Media / immunology*
  • Prostaglandin D2 / immunology
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics
  • Receptors, Immunologic / immunology*
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin / genetics
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin / immunology*
  • Th2 Cells / immunology


  • Chemokine CXCL2
  • Cxcl2 protein, mouse
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin
  • Prostaglandin D2
  • prostaglandin D2 receptor