Knowledge of vector population genetic structure is critical for vector-borne disease control and prevention strategies. Advances in both molecular genotyping technology and theoretical developments have contributed to the growing impact of such approaches on medical entomology. The pattern of genetic structure may affect the design of control strategies in determining appropriate control limits necessary to disrupt pathogen transmission. In this review, we focus on the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue viruses. We describe and discuss numerous population genetic studies illustrating the local genetic variation and gene flow of Ae. aegypti populations.
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