Current strategies in immunotherapy for the treatment of tumors or autoimmunity focus on direct in vivo targeting of antigens to dendritic cells (DC), as these cells are the key regulators of immune responses. Multiple DC subsets can be distinguished in both humans and mice, based on phenotype and location. Moreover, recent data show that these subsets have distinct functions. All these features have implications for the design of DC-targeting vaccines. In this review we integrate recent knowledge on the different DC subsets in human and mice and how DC-expressed C-type lectin receptors (CLR) can be exploited for the induction of either antigen-specific immunity or tolerance.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.