Recent studies demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in juvenile patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, so far no longitudinal studies on anti-MOG antibodies have been performed. Therefore, we determined serum and CSF antibodies against native human MOG in 266 pediatric and adult subjects with ADEM, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), MS, other neurological diseases (OND) and healthy controls (HC) and longitudinal samples of 25 patients with ADEM, CIS, MS and OND using an immunofluorescence assay. We detected serum high-titer MOG IgG in 15/34 (44%) patients with ADEM, but only rarely in CIS (3/38, 8%), MS (2/89, 2%), OND (1/58, 2%) and HC (0/47). Longitudinal analysis of serum anti-MOG IgG showed different temporal dynamics of serum antibody responses in ADEM, CIS and MS and indicated an association of a favorable clinical outcome in ADEM with a decrease in antibody titers over time.
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