Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has historically been a major complication among immunocompromised patients, such as solid-organ and stem-cell transplant recipients and patients with advanced HIV infection. While the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has almost eradicated CMV infection in HIV-infected patients, CMV disease remains a significant problem in transplant recipients once antiviral prophylaxis is discontinued. QuantiFERON(®)-CMV allows the assessment of cellular immunity against CMV by detecting the production of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with CMV antigens. Preliminary studies have shown a correlation between a lack of detectable cell-mediated immunity measured by the QuantiFERON-CMV assay and a higher incidence of CMV infection and disease in immunocompromised patients. Measurement of cell-mediated immunity against CMV appears to be a promising strategy to identify patients at highest risk for the development of CMV disease and, therefore, to individualize preventive strategies for CMV in transplant recipients.