Urinary cytokines following photodynamic therapy for bladder cancer. A preliminary report

Urology. 1990 Aug;36(2):167-71. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(90)80220-h.


This preliminary study was undertaken to test for the presence of urinary cytokines whose detection would provide evidence in support of the theory that photodynamic therapy (PDT) produces an immunologic response in patients treated for bladder cancer. Gamma interferon, interleukin 1-beta, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were assayed for in the urine of 4 patients treated with photodynamic therapy for bladder cancer, in 7 control patients undergoing transurethral surgical procedures, and in 5 healthy control subjects. Quantifiable concentrations of all cytokines, except gamma interferon, were measured in urine samples from the PDT patients with the highest light energies, while no urinary cytokines were found in the PDT patient who received the lowest light energy nor in any of the control subjects. These findings suggest that a local immunologic response may occur following PDT for bladder cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biological Factors / urine*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / immunology
  • Cystitis / immunology
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / urine
  • Interleukin-1 / urine
  • Interleukin-2 / urine
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Photochemotherapy*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / urine
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / immunology*


  • Biological Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-2
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interferon-gamma