Objective: To examine lifestyle behaviors that may contribute to endometrial cancer survivor morbidity and to identify associations with quality of life.
Methods: Patients with early-stage (I or II) endometrial cancer with a body mass index of at least 25 kg/m2 completed questionnaires on smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) and Short-Form medical outcomes (SF-36) quality-of-life surveys. Behaviors were compared with American Cancer Society 2006 guidelines for cancer survivors (150 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; five servings fruit and vegetables per day; no smoking). Effect size (d) was calculated for the difference in means between meeting and not meeting guidelines (d=0.5 moderate effect).
Results: A total of 120 participants were enrolled. Of those, 43% had hypertension, 35% osteoarthritis, 33% metabolic syndrome, 21% type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 93% abdominal obesity. Only 12% of participants were meeting physical activity guidelines. Fifteen percent reported five or more servings of fruit and vegetables per day; mean intake was 2.6 servings per day. Seventy-four percent of participants were nonsmokers. Only 1% of participants met all three American Cancer Society guidelines; 22% met none of the recommendations. The emotional well-being (mean 17.4 [±4.1] compared with 20.1 [±4.1]; d=0.66) and fatigue scores (mean 34.6 [±9.5] compared with 40.5 [±9.6]; d=0.62) indicate that those who do not meet the guidelines had lower emotional well-being and increased fatigue.
Conclusion: Endometrial cancer survivors have unhealthy lifestyles that put them at risk for morbidity. This survivor group should be offered multi-behavioral lifestyle interventions after diagnosis.
Level of evidence: II.