Human growth hormone abuse in male weightlifters

Am J Addict. Jan-Feb 2011;20(1):9-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2010.00093.x. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

Abstract

In a study of performance-enhancing substance use among 231 experienced young male weightlifters, we found that 27 (12%) reported illicit use of human growth hormone (HGH) or its bioactive derivative, insulin-like growth factor-1. All of these 27 men also reported use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and 22 (81%) met criteria for current or past AAS dependence. Fifteen (56%) also reported current or past dependence on opioids, cocaine, and/or ecstasy. These findings suggest that among young male weightlifters, illicit HGH use has become a common form of substance abuse, frequently associated with both AAS dependence and classical substance dependence.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anabolic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anabolic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Androgens / administration & dosage
  • Androgens / adverse effects*
  • Athletes / psychology*
  • Doping in Sports / statistics & numerical data*
  • Human Growth Hormone / administration & dosage
  • Human Growth Hormone / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / administration & dosage
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Self Medication / statistics & numerical data*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*

Substances

  • Anabolic Agents
  • Androgens
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I