Objective: to provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.
Options: continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives.
Evidence: a search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions.
Values: this update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).
Options: recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics.