Type I interferon protects cells from virus infection through the induction of a group of genes collectively named interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). In this study, we utilized short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to deplete ISGs in SupT1 cells in order to identify ISGs that suppress the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Among the ISG candidates thus identified were interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, including IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, that potently inhibit HIV-1 replication at least partially through interfering with virus entry. Further mutagenesis analysis shows that the intracellular region, rather than the N- and C-terminal extracellular domains, is essential for the antiviral activity of IFITM1. Altogether, these data suggest that the IFITM proteins serve as important components of the innate immune system to restrict HIV-1 infection.