Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with both a risk of adverse vascular outcome and a risk of bleeding. We have tested the hypothesis that in the setting of an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), CKD is associated with poor outcome and with larger hematoma volume.
Methods: We examined the association between CKD and ICH characteristics and outcome within a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized with an acute stroke and followed for 1 year. CKD was categorized by the estimated baseline glomerular filtration rate into moderate/severe impairment (<45), mild impairment (45-60) and no impairment (>60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).
Results: Among 128 patients with an ICH (mean age = 71.7 ± 12.3 years, 41.4% women) 46.1% had CKD (23.4% mild and 22.7% moderate/severe). Patients with moderate/severe impairment had >4-fold adjusted hazard ratio for mortality over 1 year (4.29; 95% CI = 1.69-10.90) compared to patients with no impairment. The hematoma volumes [median (25-75%)] were 15.3 ml (5.4-37.5) in patients with no impairment, 16.6 (6.8-36.9) in mild impairment and 50.2 (10.4-109.1) in moderate/severe impairment (p = 0.009). The location of the hematoma was lobar in 12% with no impairment, 17% with mild impairment and 39% with moderate/severe impairment (p = 0.02). Patients with moderate/severe impairment exhibited a 2.3-fold higher hematoma volume (p = 0.04) and a >6-fold higher odds of lobar location (95% CI = 1.59-24.02) as compared to no impairment. Further adjustment for antiplatelet use and for presence of leukoaraiosis attenuated the association with hematoma volume (p = 0.15), while moderate/severe impairment was associated with an adjusted OR of 5.35 (95% CI = 1.18-24.14) for lobar location.
Conclusions: Presence of moderate/severe CKD among patients with ICH is associated with larger, lobar hematomas and with poor outcome.
Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.