Sixty treatment-seeking individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence entered a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of oral dextroamphetamine (d-AMP) as a replacement therapy for MA dependence. The subjects took 60 mg sustained-release d-AMP for 8 weeks, during which time they received eight 50-min sessions of individual psychotherapy. Adverse events and urine toxicology for MA were assessed two times a week. There were no serious adverse events. Urine samples containing <1,000 ng/ml of MA were classified as negative for MA. The MA-negative scores in the d-AMP group (3.1 ± SD 4.6) were no higher than those in the placebo group (3.3 ± SD 5.3; P > 0.05). However, withdrawal and craving scores were significantly lower in the d-AMP group (P < 0.05 for both). Although subjects taking d-AMP did not reduce their use of MA, the significant reductions observed in withdrawal and craving scores in this group support the need for further exploration of d-AMP as a pharmacologic intervention for MA dependence, possibly at higher doses.