The role of anti-inflammatory agents in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treatment

Eye (Lond). 2011 Feb;25(2):127-39. doi: 10.1038/eye.2010.196. Epub 2010 Dec 24.


Although age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not a classic inflammatory disease like uveitis, inflammation has been found to have an important role in disease pathogenesis and progression. Innate immunity and autoimmune components, such as complement factors, chemokines, cytokines, macrophages, and ocular microglia, are believed to be heavily involved in AMD development. Targeting these specific inflammatory molecules has recently been explored in an attempt to better understand and treat AMD. Although antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy is the first line of defence against neovascular AMD, anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), immunosuppressive agents (eg, methotrexate and rapamycin), and biologics (eg, infliximab, daclizumab, and complement inhibitors) may provide an adjunct or alternative mechanism to suppress the inflammatory processes driving AMD progression. Further investigation is required to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of these drugs for both neovascular and non-neovascular AMD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Biological Products / therapeutic use
  • Complement Inactivating Agents / therapeutic use
  • Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*
  • Macular Degeneration / immunology


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Biological Products
  • Complement Inactivating Agents
  • Dermatologic Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents