We describe an episode of Leptotrichia trevisanii bacteraemia in a neutropenic hemato-oncology patient receiving chemotherapy for Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts-2 (RAEB-2). Although Leptotrichia spp. colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract, serious episodes of bacteraemia might occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with severe neutropenia. Therefore, microbiologists should consider the possibility of Leptotrichia spp. septicemia in patients with blood cultures positive for gram negative bacilli, when routine microbiology tests fail to reveal a correct identification of the organism.
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