Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) increases cardiac performance in patients with heart failure, but its effect on arterial pressure is not well established. To determine the effect of CRT on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) a systematic review using standard nomenclatures for CRT was done in Scopus (MEDLINE and Embase), Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, National Institutes of Health http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov database, and bibliography of select meta-analyses for studies evaluating CRT in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Two independent investigators extracted the articles based on predefined criteria. The primary outcome was difference in arterial pressure parameters from baseline to after CRT in nonrandomized cohort trials. This was then validated by comparing the change in arterial pressure between CRT and medical therapy groups in randomized controlled trials. A random-effects model was used for analyses. Analyses of 15 nonrandomized studies showed that CRT resulted in an increase (from baseline) in SBP by 4.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8 to 8.0, p = 0.02), no change in DBP (p = 0.21), and an increase in PP by 2.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6, p = 0.003). Results from the 3 randomized controlled trials were concordant with an increase in SBP by 3.9 mm Hg (95% CI 1.1 to 6.8, p = 0.007), no effect on DBP (p = 0.40), and an increase in PP by 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI 4.1 to 4.5, p <0.001) compared to medical therapy. In conclusion, CRT is associated with a modest increase in SBP and PP in patients with heart failure.
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