Aberrant DNA hypermethylation patterns lead to transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes in UVB-exposed skin and UVB-induced skin tumors of mice

Carcinogenesis. 2011 Apr;32(4):597-604. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgq282. Epub 2010 Dec 24.


Overexposure of the human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major etiologic factor for development of skin cancers. Here, we report the results of epigenetic modifications in UV-exposed skin and skin tumors in a systematic manner. The skin and tumor samples were collected after chronic exposure of the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice to UVB radiation using a well-established photocarcinogenesis protocol. We found a distinct DNA hypermethylation pattern in the UVB-exposed epidermal skin and UVB-induced skin tumors that was associated with the elevated expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) 1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. To explore the role of hypermethylation in skin photocarcinogenesis, we focused on the p16(INK4a) and RASSF1A tumor suppressor genes, which are transcriptionally silenced on methylation. We established that the silencing of these genes in UVB-exposed epidermis and UVB-induced skin tumors is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications, including hypoacetylation of histone H3 and H4 and increased histone deacetylation, as well as recruitment of methyl-binding proteins, including MeCP2 and MBD1, to the methylated CpGs. Higher levels of DNA methylation and DNMT activity in human squamous cell carcinoma specimens than in normal human skin suggest that the data are relevant clinically. Our data indicate for the first time that UVB-induced DNA hypermethylation, enhanced Dnmt activity and histone modifications occur in UVB-exposed skin and UVB-induced skin tumors and suggest that these events are involved in the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and in skin tumor development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 1
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases / genetics
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Female
  • Gene Silencing*
  • Genes, Suppressor*
  • Genes, p16
  • Mice
  • Mice, Hairless
  • Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics*
  • Skin Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • Ultraviolet Rays*


  • RASSF1 protein, mouse
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 1
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases