NF-κB proteins are a family of transcription factors that are of central importance in inflammation and immunity. NF-κB also plays important roles in other processes, including development, cell growth and survival, and proliferation, and is involved in many pathological conditions. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are created by a variety of cellular processes as part of cellular signaling events. While certain NF-κB-regulated genes play a major role in regulating the amount of ROS in the cell, ROS have various inhibitory or stimulatory roles in NF-κB signaling. Here we review the regulation of ROS levels by NF-κB targets and various ways in which ROS have been proposed to impact NF-κB signaling pathways.