In the 21(st) century, it is widely recognized that along with information technology (IT) and biotechnology (BT), nanotechnology (NT) will be a key field of science that will drive future developments. NT is expected to allow innovations in industrial fields such as electrical and electronics, biochemistry, environment, energy, as well as materials science by enabling the control and operation of materials at the atomic and molecular levels. In particular, the application of NT in the field of biochemistry is now enabling the realization of previously unachievable objectives.This review discusses the growth, synthesis, and biocompatible functionalization of each materials, with an emphasis on 1D nanomaterials such as CNTs, inorganic nanowires (made of Si, metals, etc.), and conducting polymer nanowires, along with 0D nanomaterials such as nanoparticles. This review also investigates the sensing principle and features of nanobiosensors made using the abovementioned materials and introduce various types of biosensors with nanostructure 0-D and 1-D. Finally, the review discusses future research objectives and research directions in the field of nanotechnology.