Risk factors and metabolic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiac disease

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011 Jan 1;16:1364-87. doi: 10.2741/3794.


Chronic kidney disease has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for incident heart failure. Despite advances in chronic heart failure treatment, the prognosis remains poor. The annual mortality from all cardiovascular causes in the end stage renal disease population is significantly higher than the general population, accounting for more than half of all deaths in this group. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility to myocardial ischemia in chronic kidney disease are not well defined. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, although common in chronic kidney disease, do not exert the same impact as in the general population. The presence of "renal-specific" non-traditional risk factors including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, anaemia, proteinuria and changes in vitamin D metabolism (encompassing the complex interactions of calcium and phosphate metabolism, hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification) play an important role in cardiovascular disease progression. An increased understanding of the array of metabolic changes/adaptations occurring in uraemic heart disease have allowed one to consider optimal management strategies and to develop new strategies for future management of uraemic heart disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications
  • Calcium Phosphates / metabolism
  • Carnitine / deficiency
  • Heart Failure / etiology*
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology
  • Hyperuricemia / etiology
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Lipid Metabolism Disorders / physiopathology
  • Myocarditis / etiology
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Proteinuria / complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology


  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Homocysteine
  • calcium phosphate
  • Carnitine