Liver has been proposed as a gatekeeper that regulates postprandial lipemia and a potential target for regulation by acute intake of virgin olive oil. To characterize the hepatic gene expression response to a fat gavage, male rats were fed a bolus of 5 ml of extra-virgin olive oil and the hepatic mRNA expression analyzed 4 hours later using DNA microarrays. To provide an initial screening of candidate genes, only twenty one with remarkably modified expression between both conditions (signal log2 ratio > 2.5 or < -2.5) were considered and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Those that presented biological significance were also analyzed 8 hours after the experimental approach. Hepatic A2m Slc13a5 and Nrep mRNA expressions were found significantly changed in both studied conditions and showed the highest significant associations with postprandial plasma triglycerides and lack of association with basal triglyceridemia. These results highlight new gene regulation in liver by postprandial triglyceridemia and will help to understand the complex human pathology providing the involvement of hepatic proteins and new strategies to cope with postprandial metabolism.