Lights and shadows concerning platelet products for musculoskeletal regeneration

Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011 Jan 1;3:96-107. doi: 10.2741/e224.


Various types of platelet (PLT) products, such as Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet Gel (PG), derived from autologous peripheral blood, have been used for tissue repair. The good clinical outcomes, due mainly to their safety and Growth Factor (GF) content, have led to a wide use of PLT products in many fields of medicine. However, until now the existing literature adds controversies to the use of PLT concentrates. When talking about PLTs and their products, a great number of variables have to be considered. These variables are mainly related to PRP preparation methods, the type of activators, intra- and inter-species variability, types of pathology to be treated, the ways and times of administration and the association of PRP or PG with other treatments. This review considers and discusses these causes of variability with particular attention to orthopaedic implications. The possibility of improving the knowledge on variables affecting therapeutic efficacy will surely help in addressing the best combination of factors implied in the different steps of PLT concentrate preparation and use.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biotechnology / methods*
  • Gels / therapeutic use*
  • Hemostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena*
  • Platelet Activation
  • Platelet Aggregation
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma*
  • Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Regeneration / physiology
  • Species Specificity


  • Gels