Increased levels of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression have been reported in many inflammatory diseases, as well as in drug resistant cancer cells. Previous reports have shown that TGase 2 is capable of inducing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation via depletion of inhibitor of kappaB (I-kappaB)alpha through polymerization in the absence of I-kappaBalpha kinase activation. This raises the question of whether increased expression of TGase 2 can extend NF-kappaB activation mediated by a canonical activation pathway. In the TGase 2-inducible EcR23/TG cell line, TGase 2 over-expression resulted in sustained activation of NF-kappa B in the presence of TNF-alpha, for up to 24 hrs, while in the absence of TGase 2 induction, NF-kappaB activity was restored to basal levels within 6 hrs of TNF-alpha treatment. In mice injected with an adenovirus vector expressing TGase 2, NF-kappaB was constitutively activated for up to 5 days, whereas Adeno/GFP-injected mice exhibited attenuated activation of NF-kappaB in response to TNF-alpha stress. Thus, the presence of increased levels of TGase 2 may exacerbate NF-kappa B activation in inflammatory states.