The Phase I clinical study was designed to assess the safety and feasibility of a dose escalating intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow (BM)-derived CD133+ stem cell therapy to the patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) and ischemia. Nine patients were received CD133+ cells into epicardial vessels supplying collateral flow to areas of viable ischemic myocardium in the distribution of the CTO. There were no major adverse cardiac events (MACE), revascularization, re-admission to the hospital secondary to angina, or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for the 24-month period following cellular infusion. In addition, there were no periprocedural infusion-related complications including malignant arrhythmias, loss of normal coronary blood flow or acute neurologic events. Cardiac enzymes were negative in all patients. There was an improvement in the degree of ischemic myocardium, which was accompanied by a trend towards reduction in anginal symptoms. Intracoronary infusion of autologous CD133+ marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible. Cellular therapy with CD133+ cells to reduce anginal symptoms and to improve ischemia in patients with CTO awaits clinical investigation in Phase II/III trials.