Based on biological molecules combined with nanostructured components, the news generations of electrochemical biosensors can employ different transducers (potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric) converting the chemical information into a measurable amperometric signal. Following this contemporary theme, our main focus in this review is to discuss different methodologies for application in biosensing, whose signal transduction is based on electrochemical principles. We apply a discussion on recent trends involving different nanostructured materials, but without daring to contemplate all nanomaterials incessantly cited in literature, which leads us to believe that this moment is an unprecedented revolution in the preparation of electrochemical biodevices. Besides, some structures of bio-nano interface and different electrochemical biosensors involved in diagnosis systems are also discussed. We outline in several parts of the report how nanoscience technologies are emerging in diagnostic medicine, as well as convergence of electrochemistry and bio-nanoscience. Our hopes for this review are that it can help different categories of researchers to understand the broad application area of electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry, in order to detecting several types of diseases and biological phenomena.