In the last 30 years, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of the biological role of endothelins in the regulation of reproductive function and fertility. A peptide hormone identified for its ability to regulate blood pressure has now been shown as a potent mediator of several reproductive pathways. Ligand- and receptor-specific roles have been identified and/or postulated during follicular development and ovulation as well as in the function and regression of the corpus luteum. In this review we have attempted to organize endothelin-mediated ovarian processes in a process-specific manner, rather than compile a review of ligand- or isoform-specific actions. Further, we have included a discussion on "post-ovarian" or oviductal function, as well as the future directions that we believe will increase our understanding of endothelin biology as a whole.