Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic cascades in the tumor microenvironment

Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011 Jan 1;3:216-25. doi: 10.2741/s146.

Abstract

Blood and lymphatic vessels in tumor tissue are major components of the tumor microenvironment. These vessels are newly formed from pre-existing host vessels stimulated by pro-blood-angiogenic and pro-lymph-angiogenic (pro-blood/lymph-angiogenic) factors expressed in tumor cells. Tumor cells establish a specific stromal microenvironment fostering tumor growth, in which blood/lymph-angiogenesis are involved. The tumor-associated blood/lymph-angiogenesis is continually induced by complicated cytokine networks, namely pro-blood/lymph-angiogenic factor-mediated paracrine and autocrine interactions among tumor cells and stromal cells including endothelial cells (ECs) and non-endothelial mesenchymal cells (neMCs). In this review, we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated blood/lymph-angiogenesis based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies. With regard to the constituent cell-dependent molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor blood/lymph-angiogenesis, we focus on: 1) the role of blood/lymph-angiogenesis-related factors/receptors expressed in tumor cells; and 2) the role of blood/lymph-angiogenesis-related factors/receptors expressed in stromal cells (ECs and neMCs). Finally, we discuss the features of tumor-associated blood/lymph-anigogenesis, especially a vessel abnormality through the viewpoint of blood/lymph-angiogenic cascades in tumor microenvironment for better understanding of the tumor vascular biology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autocrine Communication / physiology
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lymphangiogenesis*
  • Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology*
  • Paracrine Communication / physiology
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism
  • Tumor Microenvironment*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism

Substances

  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
  • platelet-derived growth factor A
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3