Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for biosensing and in vitro measurements

Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011 Jan 1;3:518-40. doi: 10.2741/s169.


Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro measurements of biological molecules in tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine / analysis
  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • Boron / chemistry*
  • Brain Stem / chemistry
  • Diamond / chemistry*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Histamine / analysis
  • Mesenteric Arteries / chemistry
  • Microelectrodes*
  • Microscopy, Atomic Force
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Norepinephrine / analysis
  • Rats
  • Serotonin / analysis
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman


  • Nitric Oxide
  • Serotonin
  • Diamond
  • Histamine
  • Adenosine
  • Boron
  • Norepinephrine