Introduction: A study is made of the usefulness of cytokines (such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-12 (IL-12)) as markers of periimplant disease (mucositis and periimplantitis). An increase in the levels of these cytokines in dental implant crevicular fluid may give rise to a lack of osteointegration, bone loss or implant failure.
Objective: To review the literature relating IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 levels to dental implant surgery and periimplantitis.
Material and method: A PubMed literature search was made of articles in English and Spanish, using the key words "cytokine and dental implants", cytokine and periimplantitis", "IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and dental implants", "IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and periimplantitis". Fourteen articles were found and classified into two groups relating interleukin levels to: a) periimplant disease; and b) their influence upon dental implant osteointegration without periimplant disease.
Conclusions: An increase in interleukin levels is observed in patients with periimplant disease, though there is controversy over the effect of interleukins in crevicular fluid and periimplantitis in relation to implant failure or the development of periimplant disease.