Angiogenic activity of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and EMD-derived proteins: an experimental study in mice

J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Mar;38(3):253-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01656.x. Epub 2010 Dec 27.


Objectives: To determine whether all or only certain proteins in an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) are angiogenic.

Materials and methods: The angiogenic effect was analysed using an in vivo angiogenesis assay. Silicon tubes were filled with or without potential and known angiogenic-modulating factors: (i) an EMD parent, (ii) nine pools of EMD proteins, (iii) fibroblast growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor and (iv) amelogenin. Silicon tubes were implanted subcutaneously in mice. Dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was injected via the tail vein, mice were euthanized and tubes were retrieved. Neovascularization was determined by measuring the amount of dextran-FITC within the tubes.

Results: The greatest angiogenic potential of the EMD parent was at a weight of 125 ng, resulting in a 4.3-fold increase compared with the negative control. Five pools of EMD proteins showed a stronger angiogenic activity than the EMD parent. Pool 5 showed the greatest angiogenic activity, when compared with the negative control (8.1-fold increase) and with 125 ng of the EMD parent (4.2-fold increase). Amelogenin demonstrated a significantly higher angiogenic activity than the negative control (increase up to 4.0-fold) and the EMD parent (increase up to 1.6-fold).

Conclusions: EMD parent, recombinant porcine amelogenin and certain pools of EMD proteins induced significant angiogenesis compared with the controls using a standardized in vivo assay.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amelogenin / pharmacology
  • Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Dental Enamel Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Dextrans
  • Diffusion Chambers, Culture
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects
  • Endothelium, Vascular / pathology
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / pharmacology
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate / analogs & derivatives
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Models, Animal
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / pharmacology
  • Subcutaneous Tissue / blood supply
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology


  • Amelogenin
  • Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
  • Dental Enamel Proteins
  • Dextrans
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • enamel matrix proteins
  • fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate