Active and passive self-ligation-a myth?

Angle Orthod. 2011 Mar;81(2):312-8. doi: 10.2319/041310-205.1.


Objective: To compare the frictional behavior of several self-ligating brackets with that of normal brackets both with and without tipping force-moments and in combination with different archwire dimensions.

Materials and methods: The resistance to sliding (RS) of seven self-ligating brackets, a conventional bracket, and a ceramic bracket with a low-friction clip were evaluated in combination with three different archwires and tipping force-moments of 0 and 10 Nmm. The center of rotation for the measurements was set within the center of the bracket or with a 10-mm offset. Resistance to sliding was measured using an Instron 3344 at a cross-head speed of 10 mm/min at a temperature of 36°C.

Results: Without a tipping moment, RS increased with the active self-ligating brackets with increasing archwire size. No RS was found for any of the passive self-ligating brackets. The 10-Nmm tipping moment resulted in more RS and was similar for all bracket and archwire combinations. RS was approximately doubled when the center of rotation was located at the bracket rather than with a 10-mm offset.

Conclusions: RS between brackets and archwires is highly dependent on the experimental setup. Different setups can result in contradictory results. Almost 1 N of traction force is lost in RS when a moment of 10 Nmm is placed at a rotational center 10 mm from the bracket.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Dental Stress Analysis
  • Friction
  • Orthodontic Appliance Design*
  • Orthodontic Brackets*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric