Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 11, 1

Effect of Smoking on Subgingival Microflora of Patients With Periodontitis in Japan


Effect of Smoking on Subgingival Microflora of Patients With Periodontitis in Japan

Michiya Kubota et al. BMC Oral Health.


Background: Smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis. To clarify the contribution of smoking to periodontitis, it is essential to assess the relationship between smoking and the subgingival microflora. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the influence of smoking on the microflora of Japanese patients with periodontitis.

Methods: Sixty-seven Japanese patients with chronic periodontitis (19 to 83 years old, 23 women and 44 men) were enrolled in the present study. They consisted of 30 smokers and 37 non-smokers. Periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) and oral hygiene status were recorded. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum, Treponema denticola and Campylobacter rectus in subgingival plaque samples was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Association between the detection of periodontopathic bacteria and smoking status was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis and chi-square test.

Results: A statistically significant association was found between having a PPD ≥ 4 mm and detection of T. denticola, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, or C. rectus, with odds ratios ranging from 2.17 to 3.54. A significant association was noted between BOP and the detection of C. rectus or P. intermedia, and smoking, with odds ratios ranging from 1.99 to 5.62. Prevalence of C. rectus was higher in smokers than non-smokers, whereas that of A. actinomycetemcomitans was lower in smokers.

Conclusions: Within limits, the analysis of the subgingival microbial flora in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis suggests a relevant association between smoking and colonization by the specific periodontal pathogens including C. rectus.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Haffajee AD, Socransky SS, Smith C, Dibart S. Microbial risk indicators for periodontal attachment loss. J Periodontal Res. 1991;26(3 Pt 2):293–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1991.tb01662.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Genco RJ. Host responses in periodontal diseases: current concepts. J Periodontol. 1992;63(4 Suppl):338–355. doi: 10.1902/jop.1992.63.4s.338. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Albandar JM. Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:177–206. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.290109.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Bergstrom J. Cigarette smoking as risk factor in chronic periodontal disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1989;17(5):245–247. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1989.tb00626.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Feldman RS, Bravacos JS, Rose CL. Association between smoking different tobacco products and periodontal disease indexes. J Periodontol. 1983;54(8):481–487. - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources