Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

Public Health Nutr. 2011 Nov;14(11):1900-6. doi: 10.1017/S136898001000337X. Epub 2011 Jan 4.


Objective: Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2).

Setting: American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA.

Subjects: A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women.

Results: Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P < 0·05). Soda consumption was not associated with increased odds of osteoporosis in either unadjusted or adjusted models (P > 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (P < 0·05).

Conclusions: Although the present study did not find associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Bone Density*
  • Carbonated Beverages / adverse effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indians, North American
  • Life Style
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / epidemiology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / etiology
  • Postmenopause
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology