Approach to the patient with gynecomastia

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):15-21. doi: 10.1210/jcem.96.9.zeg15a.


Gynecomastia is a common and sometimes distressing condition that may occur in males of all ages. Although most cases have benign causes and many are self-limited, male breast enlargement may also be a sign of underlying systemic disease or drug toxicity. Although rare, male breast cancer must also be considered in the differential diagnosis. A careful diagnostic evaluation should be pursued, tailored to the individual patient's circumstances. Treatment may include reassurance, medication, or surgery.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Gynecomastia / diagnosis*
  • Gynecomastia / etiology
  • Gynecomastia / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • Male