Coagulation is fundamental for the confinement of infection and/or the inflammatory response to a limited area. Under pathological inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis or sepsis, an uncontrolled activation of the coagulation system contributes to inflammation, microvascular failure and organ dysfunction. Coagulation is initiated by the activation of thrombin, which, in turn, triggers fibrin formation by the release of fibrinopeptides. Fibrin is cleaved by plasmin, resulting in clot lysis and an accompanied generation of fibrin fragments such as D and E fragments. Various coagulation factors, including fibrinogen and/or fibrin [fibrin(ogen)] and also fibrin degradation products, modulate the inflammatory response by affecting leukocyte migration and cytokine production. Fibrin fragments are mostly proinflammatory, however, Bβ15-42 in particular possesses potential antiinflammatory effects. Bβ15-42 inhibits Rho-kinase activation by dissociating Fyn from Rho and, hence prevents stress-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and also leukocyte migration. This article summarizes the state-of-the-art in inflammatory modulation by fibrin(ogen) and fibrin fragments. However, further research is required to gain better understanding of the entire role fibrin fragments play during inflammation and, possibly, disease development.