Novel method for non-invasive induction of a middle-ear biofilm in the rat

Vaccine. 2011 Feb 11;29(8):1628-33. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.076. Epub 2011 Jan 4.


Otitis media and other middle ear diseases are extremely common among all children worldwide. Chronic otitis media is strongly associated with the presence of a bacterial middle ear biofilm, which if left untreated, may result in hearing loss or delays in the development of speech and language. Many animal models and methods used to study the progression of various middle ear diseases exist. However, there are no reported approaches to biofilm induction in which this infectious process can be investigated. Here we report a unique, non-invasive method of biofilm induction in the rat through repeated bacterial inoculations and pressure changes within the ear.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Adhesion
  • Biofilms / growth & development*
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Ear, Middle / microbiology*
  • Female
  • Otitis Media / microbiology*
  • Pressure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / growth & development
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / pathogenicity