Clinical characteristics of kidney disease in Japanese HIV-infected patients

Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;118(3):c285-91. doi: 10.1159/000322278. Epub 2011 Jan 7.


Background: Kidney disease has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in Western countries. Japan is a country with an increasing number of newly infected HIV patients. However, only a few studies have investigated kidney disease in Asian populations infected with HIV.

Methods: We studied the prevalence of kidney disease by reviewing the clinical data of 732 HIV-infected Japanese patients. Risk factors for proteinuria, albuminuria, and renal dysfunction were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: Microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and proteinuria were present in 13.2, 4.55 and 9.52% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease of any stage and CKD ≥ stage 3 was 15.4 and 9.70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed significant associations between increasing levels of serum creatinine and cholesterol, and the coexistence of diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C coinfection with either proteinuria or albuminuria, which was significantly related to the presence of renal dysfunction. Lower CD4 cell count was associated with the presence of renal dysfunction, but higher HIV-RNA level was not.

Conclusions: Our study has shown the international dimension of the burden of kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. Either proteinuria or albuminuria is likely the most significant factor for renal dysfunction in these patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Albuminuria
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Comorbidity
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / immunology
  • Hepatitis C / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology


  • Cholesterol
  • Creatinine