Genome-wide analysis of rice and Arabidopsis identifies two glyoxalase genes that are highly expressed in abiotic stresses

Funct Integr Genomics. 2011 Jun;11(2):293-305. doi: 10.1007/s10142-010-0203-2. Epub 2011 Jan 7.


Glyoxalase pathway, ubiquitously found in all organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, consists of glyoxalase I (GLY I) and glyoxalase II (GLY II) enzymes, which detoxify a cytotoxic molecule, methylglyoxal (MG). Increase in MG has been correlated with various diseases in humans and different abiotic stresses in plants. We have previously shown that overproduction of GLY I and/or GLY II enzymes in transgenic plants provide tolerance towards salinity and heavy metal stresses. We have identified nineteen potential GLY I and four GLY II proteins in rice and twenty two GLY I and nine GLY II proteins in Arabidopsis. An analysis of complete set of genes coding for the glyoxalase proteins in these two genomes is presented, including classification and chromosomal distribution. Expression profiling of these genes has been performed in response to multiple abiotic stresses, in different tissues and during various stages of vegetative and reproductive development using publicly available databases (massively parallel signature sequencing and microarray). AtGLYI8, OsGLYI3, and OsGLYI10 expresses constitutively high in seeds while AtGLYI4, AtGLYI7, OsGLYI6, and OsGLYI11 are highly stress inducible. To complement this analyses, qRT-PCR is performed in two contrasting rice genotypes, i.e., IR64 and Pokkali where OsGLYI6 and OsGLYI11 are found to be highly stress inducible.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / drug effects
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genome, Plant
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase / genetics*
  • Metals, Heavy / toxicity
  • Oryza / drug effects
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Salinity
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics*
  • Thiolester Hydrolases / genetics*


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Thiolester Hydrolases
  • hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase