A series of monospirocyclopiperazinium salts were designed and synthesized to search for a peripherally-acting analgesic drug with low side effects. Extensive SAR studies revealed that a suitable NR(2)R(3) was critical for the analgesic activity, which might be beneficial to expose the cationic nitrogen to bind to the receptor, and possibly interact with the receptor via π-π interaction. Introduction of substituting group on the N(4)-phenyl ring could improve the activity, and the best position was the 4-position. Compound 14n showed more potent analgesic activity (63%, 20 μM/kg, sc) and holds promise for development as a mechanically new analgesic drug.
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