During the last two decades, functional neuroimaging technology, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has improved tremendously, with new attention towards resting-state functional connectivity of the brain. This development has allowed scientists to study changes in brain structure and function, and probe these two properties under conditions of evoked stimulation, disease and drug administration. In the domain of functional imaging, the identification and characterization of central nervous system (CNS) functional networks have emerged as potential biomarkers for CNS disorders in humans. Recent attempts to translate clinical neuroimaging methodology to preclinical studies have also been carried out, which offer new opportunities in translational neuroscience research. In this paper, we review recent developments in structural and functional MRI and their use to probe functional connectivity in various CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and pain.
2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.