Andrographolide and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide inhibit cytochrome P450s in HepG2 hepatoma cells

Life Sci. 2011 Feb 28;88(9-10):447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.12.019. Epub 2011 Jan 8.


Aims: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been implicated in a large number of preventable drug-herb interactions. Andrographis paniculata Nees, a tropical herb widely used for various health conditions contains two major diterpenoids, andrographolide and 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide. These compounds were evaluated systematically for their effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 expressions in HepG2 cells.

Main methods: Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of the three CYPs. CYP3A4 enzyme activity was evaluated using P450-Glo™ Assays. The LanthaScreen® TR-FRET PXR (SXR) Competitive Binding Assay was used to determine if the compounds are potential PXR-ligands.

Key findings: Both diterpenoids inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of both diterpenoids produced a more than 50% reduction in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 and this reduction was consistent with the enzyme activity. Further experiments revealed that both diterpenoids were also capable of attenuating the ability of dexamethasone to induce CYP3A4 expression, and 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide tended to bind to the PXR-LBD site in a concentration-dependent manner.

Significance: These diterpenoids are potential CYP3A4 inhibitors and the effects on CYP3A4 may be clinically significant. 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide inhibits CYP3A4 by binding and antagonizing PXR function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Dexamethasone / pharmacology
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Antagonism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects
  • Hep G2 Cells / drug effects*
  • Hep G2 Cells / enzymology
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism


  • 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Diterpenes
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • andrographolide
  • Dexamethasone
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System