'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval

Appetite. 2011 Apr;56(2):310-5. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2011.01.002. Epub 2011 Jan 8.


Previously, we have shown that foods differ markedly in the satiety that they are expected to confer (compared calorie-for-calorie). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that 'expected satiety' plays a causal role in the satiety that is experienced after a food has been consumed. Before lunch, participants (N=32) were shown the ingredients of a fruit smoothie. Half were shown a small portion of fruit and half were shown a large portion. Participants then assessed the expected satiety of the smoothie and provided appetite ratings, before, and for three hours after its consumption. As anticipated, expected satiety was significantly higher in the 'large portion' condition. Moreover, and consistent with our hypothesis, participants reported significantly less hunger and significantly greater fullness in the large-portion condition. Importantly, this effect endured throughout the test period (for three hours). Together, these findings confirm previous reports indicating that beliefs and expectations can have marked effects on satiety and they show that this effect can persist well into the inter-meal interval. Potential explanations are discussed, including the prospect that satiety is moderated by memories of expected satiety that are encoded around the time that a meal is consumed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Appetite*
  • Beverages*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Hunger*
  • Male
  • Satiation*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Weight Loss
  • Young Adult