Resveratrol is a plant polyphenolic compound. Evidence indicates that resveratrol has beneficial effects against aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The goal of our study was in vivo examination of the effects of resveratrol on the abundance of mRNA encoding Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of rat brain. Rats were administrated orally by different doses (2.5-20 mg/kg bwt) of resveratrol for 3, 10 and 30 days. Saline was used as control and 10% ethanol in saline was used as vehicle for resveratrol. Measurement of BDNF mRNA by Real-time RT-PCR showed that levels of the mRNA for BDNF were significantly and dose dependently elevated in the hippocampal tissues of rats. The findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol may be at least partly due to its inducing effects on the expression levels of the BDNF mRNA.