Training with simulation versus operative room attendance

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2011 Feb;52(1):17-37.


Reduced training times, increasing complexity of endovascular and open vascular interventions and concerns for patient's safety have necessitated a modernisation in surgical training. A more strategic approach is required to facilitate the acquisition of surgical skills outside the operating room and to minimize the risks to patients as surgeons develop their technical expertise. Virtual reality simulation has been proposed as a means to train and objectively assess technical endovascular performance without risks to patient safety. This article reviews the evidence and the limitations for this adjunctive tool, the implementation in current training programmes and future applications to maintain the highest standards of care for treatment of vascular disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence
  • Computer Graphics
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction*
  • Curriculum
  • Education, Medical, Graduate / methods*
  • Endovascular Procedures / education*
  • Humans
  • Internship and Residency*
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Models, Educational
  • Operating Rooms*
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / education*